Book - Comparative Embryology of the Vertebrates 4

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Nelsen OE. Comparative embryology of the vertebrates (1953) Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, New York.

   Comparative Vertebrate Embryology 1953: 1. The Period of Preparation | 2. The Period of Fertilization | 3. The Development of Primitive Embryonic Form | 4. Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of the Organ Systems | 5. The Care of the Developing Embryo | Figures
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Part IV - Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of the Organ Systems

Part IV - Histogenesis and Morphogenesis of the Organ Systems: 12. Structure and Development of the Integumentary System | 13. Structure and Development of the Digestive System | 14. Development of the Respiratory-buoyancy System | 15. The Skeletal System | 16. The Muscular System | 17. The Circulatory System | 18. The Excretory and Reproductive System | 19. The Nervous System | 20. The Development of Coelomic Cavities | 21. The Developing Endocrine Glands and Their Possible Relation to Definitive Body Formation and the Differentiation of Sex

The Integumentary System

A. Introduction

1. Definition and general structure of the vertebrate integument or skin

2. General functions of the skin

3. Basic structure of the vertebrate skin in the embryo

a. Component parts of the developing integument

b. Origin of the component parts of the early integument

1 ) Origin of the epidermal component

2) Origin of the dermal or mesenchymal component

3) Origin of chromatophores

B. Development of the skin in various vertebrates

1. Fishes

a. Anatomical characteristics of the integument of fishes

b. Development of the skin in the embryo of the shark, Squalus acanthias

1 ) Epidermis

2) Dermis

3) Development of scales and glands

c. Development of the skin in the bony ganoid fish, Lepisosteus (Lepidosteus) osseus

d. Development of the skin in the teleost fish

2. Amphibia

a. Characteristics of the amphibian skin

b. Development of the skin in Necturus maculosus

c. Development of the skin in the frog, Rana pipiens

3. Reptiles

a. Characteristics of the reptilian skin

b. Development of the turtle skin

4. Birds

a. Characteristics of the avian skin

1 ) Kinds of feathers

2) General structure of feathers

a) Pluma or contour feather

b) Plumule or down feather

c) Filoplume or hair feather

d) Distribution of feathers on the body

b. Development of the avian skin

1) Development of the epidermis, dermis, and nestling down feather

2) Development of the contour feather

a) Formation of barbs during the primary or early phase of contour-feather formation

b) Secondary phase of contour-feather formation

c) Formation of the barbules and the feather vane

d) Later development of the feather shaft

3) Formation of the after feather

4) Development of the later down and filoplumous feathers

5. Mammals

a. Characteristics of the mammalian skin

b. Development of the skin

1 ) Development of the skin in general

2) Development of accessory structures associated with the skin

a) Development of the hair

b) Structure of the mature hair and the hair follicle

3) Development of nails, claws, and hoofs

4) Development of horns

5) Development of the skin glands

a) Sebaceous glands

b) Sudoriferous glands

c) Mammary glands

C. Coloration and pigmentation of the vertebrate skin and accessory structures

1. Factors concerned with skin color

2. Color patterns

3. Manner of color-pattern production

a. Role of chromatophores in producing skin-color effects

b. Activities of other substances and structures in producing color effects of the skin

c. Genic control of chromatophoric activity

d. Examples of hormonal control of chromatophoric activity

e. Environmental control of chromatophoric activity

The Digestive System

A. Introduction

1. General structure and regions of the early digestive tube or primitive metenteron

a. Definition

b. Two main types of the early metenteron

2. Basic structure of the early metenteron (gut tube)

a. Basic regions of the primitive metenteron

1 ) Stomodaeum

2) Head gut or Seessel’s pocket

3) Foregut

4) Midgut

5) Hindgut

6) Tail gut (post-anal gut)

7) Proctodaeum

b. Basic cellular units of the primitive metenteron

3. Areas of the primitive metenteron from which cvaginations (diverticula) normally arise

a. Stomodaeum

b. Pharynx

c. Anterior intestinal or pyloric area

d. Junction of midgut and hindgut

e. Cloacal and proctodaeal area

B. Development of the digestive tube 6r metenteron

1. General morphogenesis of the digestive tube

2. Histogenesis and morphogenesis of special areas a. Oral cavity

1 ) General characteristics of the stomodaeal invagination

2) Rudiments of the jaws

3) Development of the tongue

4) Teeth

a) General characteristics

b) Development of teeth in the shark embryo

c) Development of teeth in the frog tadpole

d) Development of the egg tooth in the chick

e) Development of teeth in mammals

5) Formation of the secondary palate

6) Formation of the lips

7) Oral glands

b. Development of the pharyngeal area

1 ) Pharyngeal pouches and grooves

2) Pharyngeal glands of internal secretion

3) Other respiratory diverticula

c. Morphogenesis and histogenesis of the esophagus and the stomach region of the metenteron

d. Morphogenesis and histogenesis of the hepato-pancreatic area

1 ) Development of the liver rudiment

a) Shark embryo

b) Frog embryo

c) Chick embryo

d) Pig embryo

e) Human embryo

2) Histogenesis of the liver

3) Development of the rudiments of the pancreas

a) Shark embryo

b) Frog embryo

c) Chick embryo

d) Pig embryo

e) Human embryo

4) Histogenesis of the pancreas

e. Morphogenesis and histogenesis of the intestine

1) Morphogenesis of the intestine in the fish group

2) Morphogenesis of the intestine in amphibia, reptiles, birds, and mammals

3) Torsion and rotation of the intestine during development

4) Histogenesis of the intestine

f. Differentiation of the cloaca

C. Physiological aspects of the developing gut tube

Respiratory and Buoyancy Systems

A. Introduction

1. External and internal respiration

2. Basic structural relationships involved in external respiration

a. Cellular relationships

b. Sites or areas where external respiration is accomplished

c. Main types of organs used for respiration

B. Development of bronchial or gill respiratory organs

1. Development of gills in fishes

a. Development of gills in Squalus acant/iias

b. Gills of teleost fishes

c. External gills

2. Development of gills in Amphibia

a. General features

b. Development of gills in Nectunis maculosus

c. Development of gills in the larva of the frog, Rana pipiens

1) Development of external gills

2) Formation of the operculum

3) Internal gills

4) Resorption and obliteration of gills

C. Development of lungs and buoyancy structures

1. General relationship between lungs and air bladders

2. Development of lungs

a. Development of lungs in the frog and other Amphibia

b. Lung development in the chick

1 ) General features of lung development

2) Formation of air sacs

3) Formation of the bronchi and respiratory areas of the chick’s lung

4) Trachea, voice box, and ultimate position of the bird’s lung in the body

5) Basic cellular composition of the trachea, lungs, and air sacs

c. Development of lungs in the mammal

1 ) Origin of the lung rudiment

2) Formation of the bronchi

3) Formation of the respiratory area of the lung

4) Development of the epiglottis and voice box

5) Cellular composition

6) Ultimate position of the mammalian lung in the body

3. Development of air bladders

4. Lunglessness

The Skeletal System

A. Introduction

1. Definition

2. Generalized or basic embryonic skeleton; its origin and significance

a. Basic condition of the skeletal system

b. Origin of the primitive ghost skeleton

1) Notochord and subnotochordal rod

2) Origin of the mesenchyme of the early embryonic skeleton

c. Importance of the mesenchymal packing tissue of the early embryo

B. Characteristics and kinds of connective tissues

1. Connective tissue proper

a. Fibrous types

1) Reticular tissue

2) White fibrous tissue

3) Elastic tissue

b. Adipose tissue

2. Cartilage

a. Hyaline cartilage

b. Fibrocartilage

c. Elastic cartilage

3. Bone

a. Characteristics of bone

b. Types of bone

c. Characteristics of spongy bone

d. Compact bone

C. Development of skeletal tissues

1. Formation of the connective tissue proper

a. Formation of fibrous connective tissues

b. Formation of adipose or fatty connective tissue

2. Development of cartilage

3. Development of bone

a. Membranous bone formation

b. Endochondral and perichondrial (periosteal) bone formation

1) Endochrondral bone formation

2) Perichondrial (periosteal) bone formation

c. Conversion of cancellous bone into compact bone

D. Development (morphogenesis) of the endoskeleton

1. Definitions

2. Morphogenesis of the axial skeleton

a. General features of the skeleton of the head

1 ) Neurocranium or cranium proper

2) Visceral skeleton or splanchnocranium

3) Development of the skull or neurocranium

4) Vicissitudes of the splanchnocranium

b. Ossification centers and the development of bony skulls

c. Development of the axial skeleton

1) Axial skeleton of the trunk

a) Notochord

b) Vertebrae

c) Divisions of the vertebral column

d) Ribs

e) Sternum

2) Axial skeleton of the tail

d. Development of the appendicular skeleton of the paired appendages

1) General features

2) Development of the skeleton of the free appendage

3) Formation of the girdles

e. Growth of bone

f. Formation of joints

1) Definitions

2) Ankylosis (synosteosis) and synarthrosis

3) Diarthroses

4) Amphiarthroses

g. Dermal bones

The Muscular System

A. Introduction

1. Definition

2. General structure of muscle tissue

a. Skeletal muscle

b. Cardiac muscle

c. Smooth muscle

B. Histogenesis of muscle tissues

1. Skeletal muscle

2. Cardiac muscle

3. Smooth muscle

C. Morphogenesis of the muscular system

1. Musculature associated with the viscera of the body

2. Musculature of the skeleton

a. Development of trunk and tail muscles

1 ) Characteristics of trunk and tail muscles in aquatic and terrestrial vertebrates

a) Natatorial adaptations

b) Terrestrial adaptations

c) Aerial adaptations

2) Development of trunk and tail musculature

a) General features of myotomic differentiation in the trunk

b) Differentiation of the myotomes in fishes and amphibia

c) Differentiation of the truncal myotomes in higher vertebrates and particularly in the human embryo

d) Muscles of the cloacal and perineal area

e) Development of the musculature of the tail region

b. Development of muscles of the head-pharyngeal area

1) Extrinsic muscles of the eye

2) Muscles of the visceral skeleton and post-branchial area

a) Tongue and other hypobranchial musculature

b) Musculature of the mandibular visceral arch

c) Musculature of the hyoid visceral arch

d) Musculature of the first branchial arch

e) Muscles of the succeeding visceral arches

f) Muscles associated with the spinal accessory or eleventh cranial nerve

g) Musculature of the mammalian diaphragm

c. Development of the musculature of the paired appendages

d. Panniculus carnosus

The Circulatory System

A. Introduction

1. Definition

2. Major subdivisions of the circulatory system

B. Development of the basic features of the arteriovenous system

1. The basic plan of the arteriovenous system

2. Development of the primitive heart and blood vessels associated with the primitive gut

3. Formation of the primitive blood vessels associated with the mesodermal and neural areas

4. Regions of the primitive vascular system

C. Histogenesis of the circulatory system

1. The heart

2. Formation of the primitive vascular channels and capillaries

3. Later development of blood vessels

a. Arteries

b. Veins

c. Capillaries

4. Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis)

a. Theories of blood-cell origin

b. Places of blood-cell origin

1 ) Early embryonic origin of blood cells

2) Later sites of blood-cell formation

3) Characteristics of development of the erythrocyte

4) Characteristics of various white blood cells

a) Granulocytes

b) Lymphoid forms

D. Morphogenesis of the circulatory system

1. Introduction

2. Transformation of the converging veins of the early embryonic heart into the major veins which enter the adult form of the heart

a. Alteration of the primitive converging veins of the heart in the shark, Squalus acanthids

b. Changes in the primitive converging veins of the heart in the anuran amphibia

1) The vitelline veins

2) Lateral (ventral abdominal) veins

3) Formation of the inferior vena cava

4) Formation of the renal portal system

5) Precaval veins

c. Changes in the primitive converging veins of the heart in the chick

1) Transformation of the vitelline and allantoic veins

a) Vitelline veins

b) Allantoic veins

2) Formation of the inferior vena cava

3) Development of the precaval veins

d. The developing converging veins of the mammalian heart

3. Development of the heart

a. General morphology of the primitive heart

b. The basic histological structure of the primitive embryonic heart

c. Importance of the septum transvcrsum to the early heart

d. Activities of early-heart development common to all vertebrates

e. Development of the heart in various vertebrates

1 ) Shark, Squaliis acanthias

2) Frog, Rana pipiens

3 ) Amniota

a) Heart of the chick

b) Mammalian heart

( 1 ) Early features

(2) Internal partitioning

(3) Fate of the sinus venosus

(4) The division of the bulbus cordis (truncus arteriosus and conus)

f. Fate of embryonic heart segments in various vertebrates

4. Modifications of the aortal arches

5. Dorsal aortae (aorta) and branches

E. Development of the Lymphatic System

F. Modifications of the circulatory system in the mammalian fetus at birth

G. The initiation of the heart beat

The Excretory and Reproductive Systems

A. Introduction

1. Developmental relationships

2. Functions of the excretory and reproductive systems

3. Basic embryonic tissues which contribute to the urogenital structures

B. Development of the excretory system

1. General description

a. Types of kidneys formed during embryonic development

b. Types of nephrons or renal units produced in developing vertebrate embryos

2. Functional kidneys during embryonic development

a. Pronephros

b. Mesonephros

c. Metanephros and opisthonephros

3. Development and importance of the pronephric kidney

a. General considerations

b. Shark, Squalus acanthias

c. Frog

d. Chick

e. Mammal (human)

4. Development of the mesonephric kidney

a. Squalus acanthias

b. Frog

c. Chick

d. Mammal

5. Development of the metanephric kidney

a. Chick

1) Metanephric duct and metanephrogenous tissue

2) Formation of the metanephric renal units

b. Mammal (human)

1) Formation of the pelvis, calyces, collecting ducts, and nephric units

2) Formation of the capsule

3) Changes in position of the developing kidney

6. Urinary ducts and urinary bladders

a. Types of urinary ducts

b. Urinary bladders

c. Cloaca

C. Development of the reproductive system

1. Early developmental features; the indifferent gonad

2. Development of the testis

a. Mammal

b. Chick

c. Frog

3. Development of the ovary

a. Mammal

b. Chick

c. Frog

4. Development of the reproductive ducts

a. Male reproductive duct

b. Female reproductive duct

5 . Development of intromittent organs

6. Accessory reproductive glands in mammals

a. Prostate glands

b. Seminal vesicles

c. Bulbourethral glands

7. Peritoneal supports for the reproductive structures

a. Testis and ovary

b. Reproductive ducts

The Nervous System

A. Introduction

1. Definition

2. Structural and functional features

a. The morphological and functional unit of the nervous system

b. The reflex arc

c. Structural divisions of the vertebrate nervous system

d. The supporting tissue

B. Basic developmental features

1. The embryonic origin of nervous tissues

2. The structural fundaments of the nervous system

a. The elongated hollow tube

b. The neural crest cells

c. Special sense placodes

3. The histogenesis of nervous tissue

a. The formation of neurons

1 ) General cytoplasmic changes - 2) Nuclear changes

3) Growth and development of nerve-cell processes

b. The development of the supporting tissue of the neural tube

c. Early histogenesis of the neural tube

d. Early histogenesis of the peripheral nervous system

C. Morphogenesis of the central nervous system

1. Development of the spinal cord

a. Internal changes in the cord

b. Enlargements of the spinal cord

c. Enveloping membranes of the cord

2. Development of the brain

a. The development of specialized areas and outgrowths of the brain

1 ) The formation of the five-part brain

2) The cavities of the primitive five-part brain and spinal cord

b. The formation of cervical and pontine flexures

c. Later development of the five-part brain

D. Development of the peripheral nervous system

1. Structural divisions of the peripheral nervous system

2. The cerebrospinal system

3. General structure and function of the spinal nerves

4. The origin, development and functions of the cranial nerves O. Terminal

I. Olfactory

II. Optic

III. Oculomotor

IV. Trochlear

V. Trigeminal

A. Ophthalmicus or deep profundus

B. M axillaris

C. Mandibularis

VI. Abducens

VII. Facial

VIII. Acoustic

IX. Glossopharyngeal

X. Vagus

XI. The spinal accessory

XII. Hypoglossal

5. The origin and development of the autonomic system

a. Definition of the autonomic nervous system

b. Divisions of the autonomic nervous system

c. Dual innervation of thoracicolumbar and craniosacral autonomic nerves

1) Autonomic efferent innervation of the eye

2) Autonomic efferent innervation of the heart

d. Ganglia of the autonomic system and their origin

E. The sense or receptor organs

1. Definition

2. Somatic sense organs

3. Visceral sense organs

4. The lateral-line system

5. The taste-bud system

6. The development of the olfactory organ

a. Development of the olfactory organs in Squalus acanthias

b. Development of the olfactory organs in the frog

c. Development of the olfactory organs in the chick

d. Development of the olfactory organs in the mammalian embryo

7. The eye

a. General structure of the eye

b. Development of the eye

c. Special aspects of eye development

1) The choroid fissure, hyaloid artery, pecten, etc.

2) The formation of the lens

3) The choroid and sclerotic coat of the eyeball; the cornea

4) Contributions of the pars caeca

5) The origin of the ciliary muscles

6) Accessory structures of the eye

8. Structure and development of the ear

a. Structure

1 ) Three semicircular canals

2) An endolymphatic duct

3) A cochlear duct or lagena

b. Development of the internal ear

c. Development of the middle ear

d. Development of the external auditory meatus and pinna

F. Nerve-fiber-effector organ relationships

The Development of the Coelomic Cavities

A. Introduction

1. Definitions

2. Origin of the primitive splanchnocoelic coelom

B. Early divisions of the primitive splanchnocoelic coelom

1. Formation of primitive suspensory structures

2. Formation of the primitive transverse division of the body and the primary pericardial and peritoneal divisions of the coelom

a. Lateral mesocardia

b. Formation of the liver-septum transversum complex

1) Foritiation of the liver-septum complex through modification of the ventral mesentery by liver outgrowth

2) Formation of the liver-septum complex in the human embryo

c. Formation of the primary septum transversum

C. Coelomic changes in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, and birds

1. In fishes

2. In amphibians, reptiles, and birds

D. Formation of the coelomic cavities in mammals

1. Formation of the pleuropericardial membrane

2. Development of the pleuroperitoneal membrane

E. Development of independent pericardial walls

1. The arrangement of the parietal pericardial wall in fishes

2. Formation of an independent parietal pericardial wall in the chick

3. Formation of the independent parietal pericardial wall in amphibians and reptiles

4. Separation of the parietal pericardial wall in mammals

F. The mammalian diaphragm

G. The pulmonary diaphragm or aponeurosis of the chick

H. The omental bursa

I. The formation of various ligaments in the stomach-liver region

1. The gastro-hepatic and hepato-duodenal ligaments

2. The coronary ligament of the liver

3. The falciform ligament of the liver

4. The gastro-splenic ligament

The Developing Endocrine Glands and Tlieir Possible Relation to Definitive Body Formation and the Differentiation of Sex

A. Introduction

B. Morphological features and embryological origin of the endocrine glands

1. Pancreas

2. Pituitary gland (hypophysis cerebri)

a. Anterior lobe

b. Posterior lobe

c. Pars intermedia

3. Thyroid gland

4. Parathyroid glands

5. Thymus gland

6. Pineal body

7. Adrenal (suprarenal) glands

8. Gonads

C. Possible influence of endocrine secretions on the development of definitive body form

1. Thyroid and pituitary glands and anuran metamorphosis

2. Tliyroid and pituitary glands in relation to the development of other vertebrate embryos

a. Chick

1) Thyroid gland

2) Pituitary gland

b. Mammal

1) Thyroid gland

2) Pituitary gland

c. Fishes

3. General conclusions relative to the influence of the thyroid and pituitary glands in vertebrate embryology

D. Possible correlation of the endocrine glands with sex differentiation

1. Differentiation of sex •

a. General sex features in the animal kingdom

b. Chromosomal, sex-determining mechanisms

c. Possible influence of the sex field in sex determination

2. Influence of hormones on the differentiation of sex

3. General summary of the factors involved in sex differentiation in the vertebrate group