Anatomical and physiological studies on the growth of the inner ear of the albino rat 4 (1923)

From Embryology
Embryology - 6 May 2021    Facebook link Pinterest link Twitter link  Expand to Translate  
Google Translate - select your language from the list shown below (this will open a new external page)

العربية | català | 中文 | 中國傳統的 | français | Deutsche | עִברִית | हिंदी | bahasa Indonesia | italiano | 日本語 | 한국어 | မြန်မာ | Pilipino | Polskie | português | ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਦੇ | Română | русский | Español | Swahili | Svensk | ไทย | Türkçe | اردو | ייִדיש | Tiếng Việt    These external translations are automated and may not be accurate. (More? About Translations)

Wada T. Anatomical and physiological studies on the growth of the inner ear of the albino rat. (1923) Memoirs of the Wistar Institute of Anatomy and Biology, No. 10, Philadelphia. Rat Inner Ear (1923): I. Cochlea growth | II. Inception of hearing and cochlea growth | III. Growth of largest nerve cells in ganglion vestibulare | Final Summary | Literature Cited

Historic Disclaimer - information about historic embryology pages 
Mark Hill.jpg
Pages where the terms "Historic" (textbooks, papers, people, recommendations) appear on this site, and sections within pages where this disclaimer appears, indicate that the content and scientific understanding are specific to the time of publication. This means that while some scientific descriptions are still accurate, the terminology and interpretation of the developmental mechanisms reflect the understanding at the time of original publication and those of the preceding periods, these terms, interpretations and recommendations may not reflect our current scientific understanding.     (More? Embryology History | Historic Embryology Papers)

Anatomical and Physiological Studies on the Growth of the Inner Ear of the Albino Rat

Final Summary

This study is concerned with the age changes in the organ of Corti and the associated structures. The changes in the largest nerve cells which constitute the spiral ganglion and the vestibular ganglion, respectively, have also been followed from birth to maturity. On pages 116 to 124 are given the summary and discussion of the observations on the growth of the tympanic wall of the ductus cochlearis.

The conclusions reached from the study of the largest nerve cells in the ganglion spirale appear on pages 143 to 145. On pages 155 and 156 are presented the results of the study on the correlation between the response to sound and to the conditions of the cochlea.

Finally, the observations on the growth of the largest cells in the ganglion vestibu'are are summarized on pages 168 and 169.

It is not necessary to again state in detail the conclusions reached in the various parts of this study.

At the same time, if we endeavor to obtain a very general picture of the events and changes thus described, this may be sketched as follows:

Within the membranous cochlea there occurs a wave of growth passing from the axis to the periphery as shown in figures 4 to 13. The crest or highest point of the tissue mass appears at birth near the axis, in the greater epithelial ridge, and then progressively shifts toward the periphery, so that at maturity it is in the region of the Hensen cells. With advancing age the hair cells come to lie more and more under the tectorial membrane and the pillar cells seem to shift toward the axis.

At from 9 to 12 days the tunnel of Corti appears and the rat can hear.

All of these changes occur first in the basal turn and progress toward the apex. The mature relations are established at about twenty days. There are thus two waves of change in the membranous cochlea, from the axis to the periphery and the other from the base to the apex. The rat can usually hear at twelve days of age or about three days before the eyes open.

The largest cells in the ganglion spirale are very immature at birth, reach their maximum at twenty days, and after that diminish in size, slightly but steadily. The rat hears, therefore, before these cells have reached their full size.

The largest cells in the vestibular ganglion are precocious and remarkably developed, even at birth. They cease their rapid growth at about fifteen days of age, but increase very slightly though steadily throughout life.

Literature Cited

ALAGNA, G. 1909 Beitrag zur normalen und pathologischen Histologie

der Ganglien des Akustikus. Ztscher. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 59. ALEXANDER, G. 1899 Zur Anatomie des Ganglion vestibulare der Sauge thiere. Sitz.-Ber. Akad. Wiss. math. nat. Cl., Wien, Bd. 108,

Abt. 3. AYERS, H. 1890 On the origin of the internal ear and the functions of the

semi-circular canals and cochlea. Milwaukee.

1891 Die Membrana tectoria-was sie ist, und die Membrana

basilaris-was sie verrichet. Anat. Anz., Bd. 6.

1889 On the membrana basilaris, the membrana tectoria and the nerve endings in the human ear. Zool. Bull., vol. 1.

BARTH 1889 Beitrag zur Anatomie der Schnecke. Anat. Anz., Bd. 4. BOTTCHER, A. 1869 Ueber Entwickelung und Bau des Gehorlabyrinthes

nach Untersuchungen an Saugethieren. F. Blockmann u. Sohn,


1872 Kritische Bemerkungen und neue Beitrage zur Literatur

des Gehorlabyrinths. Dorpat. BUSACCA, A. 1916 Studi sulla curva di accrescimento delle cellule nervose

dei gangli spinali nei mammiferi. Arch. ital. di aaat. e di embriologia, T. 15. CORTI, A. 1851 Recherches sur 1'organe de 1'ouie des mammiferes. Ztschr.

f. wiss. Zool., Bd. 3. CZINNER, H. I., UND HAMMERSCHLAG, V. 1897 Beitrag zur Entwicklung sgeschichte der Corti'schen Membran. Archiv f. Ohrenh., Bd. 44. DONALDSON, H. H. 1915 The rat. Reference tables and data for the albino

rat (Mus norvegicus albinus) and the Norway rat (Mus norvegicus).

Memoirs of the Wister Institute of Anatomy and Biology, no. 6. DONALDSON, H. H., AND NAGASAKA, G. 1918 On the increase in the diameters

of nerve cell bodies and of the fibers arising from them, during the

later phases of growth (albino rat). Jour. Comp. Neur., vol. 29. DUPUIS, A. 1894 Die Cortische Membran. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 3. VON EBNER, V. 1902 In A. Kolliker's Hanbd. d. Gewebelehre des Menschen,

Bd. 3, 2 Halfte, S. 899-959. EWALD, J. R. 1899 Zur Physiologie des Labyrinthes. VI. Mitteil. Eine

neue Hortheorie. Arch. ges. Physiol., Bd. 76. EWALD, J. R. UND JADERHOLM, G. A. 1906 Auch alle Gerausche geben,

wenn sie intermittiert werden, Intermittenztone. Arch. ges. Physiol.,

Bd. 115. GOTTSTEIN, J. 1872 Ueber den feineren Bau und die Entwickelung der

Gehorschnecke der Saugethiere und des Menschen. Arch. f. inikr.

Anat., Bd. 8. HARDESTY, I. 1908 The nature of the tectorial membrane and its probable

rfile in the anatomy of hearing. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 8.

1915 On the proportions, development and attachment of the

tectorial membrane. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 18.


HASSE, C. 1866 Die Schnecke der Vogel. ' Ztscher. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. 17.

1873 Die vergleichende Morphologic und Histologie des hautigen

Gehororganes der Wirbeltiere. Suppl. zu dem anatom. Studien

von C. Hasse, Bd. 1, Leipzig. HELD, H. 1902 Untersuchungen fiber den feineren Bau des Ohrlabyrinths

der Wirbeltiere. I. Zur Kenntnis des Corti'schen Organs u. der

librigen Sinnesapparate des Labyrinths bei Saugetieren. Abhandl.

d. k. Sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., Math.-phys. Kl., Bd. 28.

1909 Untersuchungen tiber den feineren Bau des Ohrlabyrinths

der Wirbeltiere. II. Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des Corti'schen

Organs und der Macula acustica bei Saugetieren und Vogeln.

Abhandl. d. k. Sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., Math-phys. Kl., Bd. 31. HENLE, J. 1866 Handbuch d. systemat. Anatomic des Menschen. II.

Bd. Eingeweidelehre des Menschen. Braunschweig.

1873 Handbuch d. systemat. Anatomic des Menschen. II.

Bd. Eingeweidelehre des Menschen. 2. Aufl. Braunschweig, v. HENSEN, 1863 Zur Morphologic der Schnecke, des Menschen und der

Saugetiere. Ztscher. f. wiss. Zool., Bd. 13.

1873 Dr. A. Bottcher: Ueber Entwicklung und Bau des Geholabyrinths nach Untersuchungen an Saugetieren. Arch. f. Ohrenh.,

Bd. 6. HOESSLI, H. 1912 Weitere experimentelle Studien liber die akustische

Schadigung des Saugetierlabyrinths. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 64. HUNTER, W. S. 1914 The auditory sensitivity of the white rat. Jour. Animal

Behavoir, vol. 4. - 1915 The auditory sensitivity of the white rat. Jour. Animal

Behavoir, vol. 5.

1918 Some notes on the auditory sensitivity of the white rat.

Psychobiology, vol. 1. KATO, T. 1913 Zur Physiologic der Binnenmuskeln des Ohres. Arch. f. d.

ges. Physiol., Bd. 150. KISHI, J. 1902 Uber den Verlauf und die periphere Endigung des Nervus

cochleae. Arch. f. mikr, Anal., Bd. 59. KISHI, K. 1907 Cortische Membran und Tonempfindungstheorie. Arch. f.

d. ges. Physiol., Bd. 116. v. KOLLIKER, A. 1867 Handbuch der Gewebelehre des Menschen. 5. Aufl.

Leipzig. KOLMER, W. 1907 Beitrage zur Kenntnis des feiaeren Baues des Gehororgans

mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Haussaugetiere. Arch. f.

mikr. Anat., Bd. 70. KRATJSE, F. 1906 Entwicklungsgeschichte des Gehororgans. Handb. d.

Entwicklungslehre der Wirbeltiere, Bb. 2, Teil 2. Jena. KREIDL, A., TJND YANASE, J. 1907 Zur Physiologie der Cortischen Membran.

Zentralbl. f. Physiol., Bd. 21. LANE, H. H. 1917 The correlation between structure and function in the

development of the special senses of the white rat. Diss. presented

to Princeton Univ. University of Oklahoma, Norman.


LEVI, G. 1908 I gangli cerebrospinali Studi di istologia comparata e di

istogenesi. Arch. Hal. Anat. Embr., T. 7, Suppl. MARX, H. 1909 Untersuchungen uber e. \perimentelle Schadigungen des

Gehororgans. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 59. METZNER AND YOSHIT 1909 Experimentelle Schadigungen des GehSrorgans

durch Schalleinwirkungen. Verb. d. Ges. deutsch Nat. Aerzte

Vers., 2. Teil. 2. Halfte. MIDDENDORP, H. W. 1867 Het vliezig slakkenhuis in zijne wording en in

den ontwikkelden toestand. Groningen.

1868 Zur Histologie und Entwickelung der Schnecke. Monatschr.

f. Ohrenh., nos. 11 and 12. XAGER, F. R. 1905 Uber postmortale histologische Artefakte am Nervus

acusticus und ihre Erklarung, ein Beitrag zur Lehre der Corpora

amylacea. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 51. NAGER, F. R., UND YOSHII, U. 1910 Zur Kenntnis der cadaverosen Verander ungen des innerea Ohres. Zeitschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 60. XAKAMURA, Y. 1914 Experimentelle Untersuchungen uber die Einwirkung

des Aethyl und Methylalkols auf dera Gehororgan. Beitr, z. Anat.,

Physiol., Path. u. Therap. d. Ohres, Bd. 8. NITTONO, KENJI 1920 On the growth of the neurons composing the gasserian

ganglion of the albino rat, between birth and maturity. Jour.

Comp. Neur., vol. 32. PRENTISS, C. W. 1913 On the development of the membrana tectoria with

reference to its structure and attachments. Am. Jour. Anat., vol. 14. PRITCHARD, U. 1878 The development of the organ of Corti. Jour. Anat. and

Physiol., vol. 13.

RETZIUS, G. 1884 Das Gehororgan der Wirbeltiere. 11. Stockholm. RICKENBACHER, O. 1901 Untersuchungen Uber die embryonale Membrana

tectoria des Meerschweinchens. Anat. Hefte, Bd. 16. SATO, N. 1917 Der histologische Bau der Vogelschnecke und ihre Schadigung

durch akustische Rei/e und durch Detonation. Basel. SCHAFER, E. A. 1909 Quain's elements of anatomy, vol. 3, part 2, llth

ed., London.

SCHWALBE, G. 1887 Lehrbuch der Anatomic der Sinnesorgane. Erlangen. SCOTT, .SYDNEY 1909 A contribution to the histology of the human osseous

and membranous labyrinth. J. of Anat. Physiol., vol. 43, pp. 329-345. SHAMBAUGH, G. E. 1910 Das Verhaltniss zwischen der Membrana tectoria

und dem Cortischen Organ. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 62.

1910 A The physiology of the cochlea. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. and

Laryngol., vol. 19.

1910B The physiology of tone perception. Ann. Otol. Rhinol. and

Laryngol., vol. 19. SIEBENMANN UND YOSHII 1908 Praparate von zirkumskripter Labyrinthitis.

Verhandl. der Deutsch. otolog. Gesellsch. SMALL, W. S. 1899 Notes on the psychic development of the young white

rat. Am. Jour. Psychol., vol. II.


SUGITA, N. 1918 Comparative studies on the growth of the cerebral cortex.

VI. On the increase in size and on the developmental changes of

some nerve cells in the cerebral cortex of the albino rat during the

growth of the brain. Jour. Comp. Neur., vol. 29. TADOKORO, K., AND WATANABE, T. 1920 Experimental studies on the vital

fixations of the cochlea. Ikaijiho (Medical Review, Japan), no.

1345, p. 552. VAN. DER STRICHT, O. 1918 The genesis and structure of the membrana

tectoria and the crista spiralis of the cochlea. Con. to Embryology

(Carnegie Inst. of Wash.), no. 227. WATSON, J. B. 1907 Kinaesthetic and organic sensations: their rdle in the

reactions of the white rat to the maze. Psychol. Review, Monograph

Suppl., vol. 8. WINIWARTER, A. v. 1870 Untersuchungen iiber die Gehorschnecke der

Saugetiere. Sitz. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. in Wein, Bd. 61. WITTMAACK, K. 1904 Ueber Markscheidendarstellung und den Nachweis

von Markhiillen der Ganglienzellen im Akustikus. Arch. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 61.

1906 Zur histo-pathologischen Untersuchung des Gehororgans mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Darstellung der Fett und MyelinSubstanzen. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 51.

1907 Ueber Schadigungen des Gehors durch Schalleinwirkungen. Verhandl. d. deutsch. otol. Gesellsch., Jena.

WITTMAACK, K., UND LAUROWITSCH, Z. 1912 Ueber artefizielle, postmortale und agonale Beeinflussung der histologischen Bef unde im membranes en Labyrinthe. Ztschr. f. Ohrenh., Bd. 65.

YOSHII, U. 1909 Experimentelle Untersuchungen iiber die Schadigung des Gehororgans durch Schalleinwirkung. Ztschr. f Ohrenh., Bd. 58.