ANAT2341 Lab 10 - Online Assessment 2015

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Individual Assessment

  • Place your work on this page under a sub-sub-heading of your ROI.
  • Add your own sub-sub-heading below any existing student ROI.
About this Assessment
A demonstration of this assessment will be given in the practical class. Below in the collapsible table are examples of links from a virtual slide. There is also a permalink help page.


Virtual Slide Features - Stage 22 Liver
Stage 22 image 034.jpg Virtual Slide - Stage 22 Liver and Ductus Venosus      All Virtual Slides

The links shown in the table below are to specific features shown on the Human embryo (stage 22) Liver and Ductus Venosus virtual slide. See also notes on Liver Development

Clicking the text will open the slide at a detailed view with the structure generally located in the centre of the view. The slide then can also be zoomed out from the set magnification using the controls in the upper left or the mouse.

Use your browser back button to return to this table.

You can also make your own selected feature view.
  1. Set the virtual slide to the region and zoom of interest.
  2. Click the Permalink (lower righthand corner).
  3. Then bookmark in your browser, or copy the web address.

See also Permalink help

Cardiovascular Liver Endocrine Musculoskeletal Neural Gastrointestinal

stomach (pylorus)


Using the Human Embryo Carnegie Stage 22 virtual slides shown below:

  1. Using the "mobile view" Identify a sensory region of interest (ROI) in one of the virtual slides below.
  2. View at a high magnification (detailed view) the region of interest.
  3. Generate a permalink to the ROI.
  4. Paste the link on your own page and write a brief description of what the linked region is showing.
  5. Add a link to the embryology page and sub-heading that relates to your identified feature.
  6. Paste all the content (text and links) you have just generated on this page under a sub-heading named after your ROI.
Stage 22 - Eye and Nose

Stage 22 image 008.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Eye

Stage 22 image 008-eye.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Oral Cavity and Inner Ear

Stage 22 image 011.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Desktop | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides
Stage 22 - Larynx and Medulla

Stage 22 image 015.jpg

 ‎‎Mobile | Original

Stage 22 | Embryo Slides

Student ROIs

This is a sub-sub-heading

Hyaloid Vascular System

Link to permalink image: | Hyaloid Vascular System

The hyaloid vascular system (HVS) is a network of blood vessels, supplied by the hyaloid artery and extending from the optic disk to the superior part of the retina. These nourish the eye during development . This structure is transient disappearing before birth, but is commonly present in premature infants[1]. Persistence post nataly leads to severe blindness. It is a common target of studies into the signaling pathways of vascuralisation and regression.

Embryology link Vision - Retina Development #Week 8

Cochlear Duct

link to permalink image:| Cochlear Duct


The cochlear duct is an fluid filled cavity inside the cochlea. It located between the tympanic duct and the vestibular duct, and between the basilr membrane and reissner's memebrane. It derived from otic placode, otic vesicle, and originated from surface ectoderm.

embryology link Sensory - Hearing and Balance Development --Inner Ear

Semicircular Canal

link to permalink image:| Semicircular Canal

The semicircular canals are part of the inner ear.They are lined with cilia and filled with endolymph which is a liquid substance. Every time the head moves, the endolymph moves the cilia and this movements of the cilia are communicated to the brain. As a result, the brain knows how to keep the body balanced, regardless of the posture.

embryology link Sensory - Balance Development -- Inner Ear

Lens of the Eye

Link to permalink image: Anterior portion of the Lens of the embryonic eye

The lens of the eye is derived from surface ectoderm. Said ectoderm forms a lens/optic placode in the head region which then invaginates to form a lens pit and then later a lens vessel. Lens fibres then develop and are surrounded by a lens capsule. The main function of the lens is to focus light onto the retina.

Embryology link Vision - Lens Development --Development Overview

Retina of the Eye

Link to permalink image: Retina of the Eye

The retina is the light sensitive portion of the eye. It contains 10 separate layers, including the photoreceptor layer which is comprised of rods and cones. These rods and cones convert light into signals, which are then communicated to the brain via the optic nerve. Optic cup morphogenesis is responsible for the development of the vertebrate eye, and it is believed that this process significantly contributes to the development of the retina. The image above displays a Carnegie Stage 22 retina. The nerve fibre layer is particularly prominent in this image and is the pale layer closest to the vitreous chamber. The processes of rods, cones and ganglion cells can be observed migrating towards the optic nerve.

Embryology Link Vision - Retina Development

Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Link to permalink image: Retinal Pigment Epithelium

The Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE) is a complex differentiation of the retina, is generated from the optic neuroepithelium, and is structurally made up of cuboidal cells and multiple villi on its apical side. Its lateral sides are joined together by gap junctions and adherens and the RPE's basal side is in contact with Bruch's membrane. It lies between the neuronal retina and the choroid. The section shows that in the embryo the pigmented retina is still separated by a space from the neuronal retina. This space will be decreased in the adult and closely appose the two to each other.

Embryology Link Vision - Retina Development#Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Cornea

Permalink: Cornea

The cornea is the front layer of the eye covering the iris, pupil and anterior chamber. The cornea is a transparent layer that accounts for 2/3 of the eyes total optic power by refracting light along with the anterior chamber and lens. The cornea in humans consist of 5 layers as shown in the permalink, the Corneal epithelium, followed by Bowman’s layer, Corneal stroma, Descemet’s membrane and corneal endothelium. The corneal stroma and endothelium are derived from cranial neural crest cells and the corneal epithelium differentiates from ectoderm interacting with the developing lens.

Embryology link: Vision – Cornea Development

Middle Ear Ossicles

Link to permalink image: Middle Ear Ossicles

The middle ear ossicles named the malleus, incus, and stapes, are involved in transmitting vibrations from the tympanic membrane to the oval window, and ultimately to the inner ear. The are attached to muscles, tensor tympani and stapedius, to assist in reducing sound vibration and oscillations at the oval window. Embryologically, the malleus and incus are derived from the cartilage of the 1st pharyngeal arch, and the stapes is derived from the cartilage of the 2nd pharyngeal arch. In ossicle development, the malleus and incus initially form as a single structure from Meckel's cartilage, that are later separated by joint that forms between them. This process occurs within solid mesenchyme of the pharyngeal arches, therefore the ossicles are not functioning. It is only after birth that elongation of the auditory tube occurs to form the middle ear cavity that the middle ear ossicles are situated in.

Embryology Link Hearing - Middle Ear Development

Embryonic Tongue

Link to permalink image: Tongue

The tongue is a muscle and is important for sensing taste. All the pharyngeal arches present in the human embryo contribute to the development of the tongue however, the tongue muscle cells are derived from somites and the muscles of mastication are derived from somitomeres. Each pharyngeal contributes a different portion where arch 1 forms the oral part of the tongue, arch 2 forms the initial transient surface, arch 3 forms the pharyngeal part of the tongue and arch 4 forms the epiglottis and adjacent regions. The superior surface of the tongue comprises of taste buds, various papillae and stratified squamous epithelium. The tongue is innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (CNXII) allowing movement. Tongue Development

Embryonic Link: Tongue Development

Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)

Link to permalink image: Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells are generated from the optic neuroepithelium. The choroidal melanocytes, the other pigmented cells, are derived from neural crest cells that have migrated towards the eye. RPE are cuboidal cells with multiple villi on its apical side which are in direct contact with the outer segments of the photoreceptor cells. Its lateral sides are joined together by tight junctions, adherens and gap junctions. The basal side of the retinal pigment epithelium is in contact with the underlying basal membrane which is also known as the Bruch's membrane. The permalink shows that the sensory retina and pigmented epithelium are separated by a space called the optic ventricle. In the adult the optic ventricle will no longer be present and the 2 layers would be closely associated to each other.

Embryology Link Vision - Retina Development#Retinal Pigment Epithelium

Eyelid

Link to permalink image: Eyelid

An eyelid is a thin fold of skin that covers and protects the human eye. Prior to the development of the eyelids, a small groove forms both above and below the eye (eyelid groove) at stage 16. And then, these grooves deepen, eyelid folds develop, first below, and then above, the eye. At stage 19-22, the eyelid folds develop into the eyelids and cover more of the eye as the palpebral fissure takes shape. The upper and the lower eyelids meet at the outer canthus in Stage 19.

Embryonic Link Integumentary System - Eyelid Development

The Optic Nerves

image link: [Nerve Image 001 ROI] [Nerve Image 002 ROI]

The Optic Nerves are paired structures that send visual information from the retina to vision center of the brain and is derived from neural crest cells. The optic stalk, is a embryonic template for the projection of the optic nerve which is an outgrowth of the brain. The optic nerve contains retinal ganglion cells and glial cells. the optic nerve is part of the CNS contained within the bony vault of the skull.

Embryonic Link Lecture - Sensory Development

Otic Capsule

Link to Permalink: Otic Capsule

Otic Capsule is formed when the inner and middle ear form within the mesenchyme and is located at the base of the skull. The mesenchyme differentiates first to cartilage which will form the chondrocranium. This initial bone will form marrow spaces which will disappear as ongoing ossification occurs. The remaining cartilage will undergo endochondral ossficiation to form the mastoid process of the temporal bone during weeks 16-24.

Embryonic Link Hearing - Middle Ear Development


The Tongue

Permalink: Tongue


All Pharyngeal Arches contribute to the development of the tongue:

  • Arch 1: Anterior 2/3 (oral surface)
  • Arch 2: its surface contribution is lost.
  • Arch 3: Posterior 1/3 (pharyngeal)
  • Arch 4: epiglottis and surrounding tissue.


Muscle development is not complete at birth. They originate from the following:

  • Tongue muscles originate from somites.
  • Muscles of mastication come from unsegmented somitomeres.


Dorsally, the tongue's epithelium is stratified squamous. This area is covered in papillae with taste buds. Featured in a V-shape at the back of the tongue are 8-12 circumvallate papillae.


Embryonic Link Tongue Development


ANAT2341 Lab 10: Introduction | Early Embryo | Late Embryo | Fetal | Postnatal | Abnormalities | Online Assessment


2015 Course: Week 2 Lecture 1 Lecture 2 Lab 1 | Week 3 Lecture 3 Lecture 4 Lab 2 | Week 4 Lecture 5 Lecture 6 Lab 3 | Week 5 Lecture 7 Lecture 8 Lab 4 | Week 6 Lecture 9 Lecture 10 Lab 5 | Week 7 Lecture 11 Lecture 12 Lab 6 | Week 8 Lecture 13 Lecture 14 Lab 7 | Week 9 Lecture 15 Lecture 16 Lab 8 | Week 10 Lecture 17 Lecture 18 Lab 9 | Week 11 Lecture 19 Lecture 20 Lab 10 | Week 12 Lecture 21 Lecture 22 Lab 11 | Week 13 Lecture 23 Lecture 24 Lab 12 | 2015 Projects: Three Person Embryos | Ovarian Hyper-stimulation Syndrome | Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome | Male Infertility | Oncofertility | Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis | Students | Student Designed Quiz Questions | Moodle page
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