Project Concept by Dr Mark Hill, Cell Biology Lab, Department of Anatomy, School of Medical Sciences. This project went online in 1997 and has continued to be updated since that time. About the Author
This project is dedicated to Beverley Hill (1933-2001) who from 1996 - 2000 worked patiently on all facets of this project; preparing images, fixing text, links, and committing a tireless labour on my continual updates and changes.
Contributors: Dedication | Serial Images | Anatomy Notes | Richard Behringer | Peter Coombs | Chris Creteko | Lance Davidson | DiMarzo | Virginia Diewert | Sally Dunwoodie | Angela Giangrande | Thomas Haaf | David Hanauer | Sanjiv Jain | Ryoichiro Kageyama | Margaret Kirby | Paul Kulesa | Paul Lancaster | Paul Larsen | William Larsen | Kathleen Molyneaux | Andrew McLennan | Cyrus Papan | Julia Potter | Kohei Shiota | Suzanne Stensaas | Kathy Sulik | Charles Thomas | David Walsh | Online Contributors | UNSW Students | UNSW Technical Support | Journals | Glossary |
The original principle of using serial sections on microfiche cards was developed by Dr M. Smith, Prof. C. Watson and the late Prof. I. Tork in the early 1980's. The original 27mm Human embryo microfiche images were developed by Dr M. Smith and the 6mm Pig Embryo microfiche images by Dr M. Smith and Prof. I. Tork.
Anat 2006 Notes are edited with permission of Dr B. Freeman, from his Course Manual for Human Embryology (1995). Other staff and former staff who had contributed to these notes prior to 1989 are Dr M.S.R. Smith, the late Prof. I. Tork, Em. Prof. H.ZawTun, Prof. C.R.R. Watson and Prof. R. Wheeler-Haines.
Notes written and compiled by Dr M. Hill used many different additional texts, research papers and WWW resources. Specific texts are referenced at the top of page 1 in Reading in each section of notes. Otherwise, additional references and WWW resources are acknowledged directly (or the original is accessible) on the specific WWW page.
Thanks to Prof Kathy Sulik for scanning electron micrographs of the Carnegie stages of the early human embryo. Kathy Sulik Homepage | (More? Carnegie Stages Electron Micrographs | Carnegie Stages Pubmed search- Sulik, KK)
Thanks to Prof Paul Lancaster for data published in "Congenital Malformations Australia" Series 1981-92, 1993-94, and 1995-96. (More? Abnormal Development- Australian Statistics)
Thanks to Dr Margaret Kirby Neonatal Perinatal Research Institute, Duke University Medical Center, for chicken neural crest/heart movies from her supplement to the paper "Time-Lapse Study With High Speed Video Camera in the Early Embryonic Chick Heart to Visualize a Time Window of Normal and Abnormal Heart Development" in Circulation (Email: email@example.com)
Thanks to Dr Andrew McLennan Foetal Medicine Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital for providing foetal ultrasound movies. Dr McLennan 's research interest is in the use of Nuchal translucency screening for chromosomal abnormality in the 1st trimester. (Email: Andrew McLennan)
Thanks to the late Prof William Larsen allowing use of movies from his textbook. (Human Embryology homepage)
Thanks to Prof Kathleen Molyneaux Department of Genetics, Case Western Reserve University for providing mouse primordial germ cell migration movies. (Email: Kathleen Molyneaux)
Thanks to Dr Thomas Haaf allowing use of his research images on parental genome organization in the preimplantation embryo. (Email: Thomas Haaf)
Thanks to Charles Thomas allowing use of his research images on blastocyst cell division in embryonic c elegans development. (Email: Charles Thomas)
Thanks to Dr David Hanauer for his program "Growth Charts version 1.1" 2003 which is included on the Embryology CD (Email: David Hanauer) Embryology CD Link is in section on postnatal development on the page Normal Development- Postnatal- Growth Charts - Growth Charts Program Note that the program is based on USA Grwth Charts not the new WHO standards. The original program can also be found at (Version 1.2.2 http://www.supermagnus.com/mac/Growth_Charts/)
Thanks to Prof Virginia Diewert, Professor of Orthodontics, University of British Columbia, who recently visited the Lab and helped with content, organisation and development of the Face Notes section. (Virginia Diewert information Email: Virginia Diewert)
Thanks to Prof Richard Behringer and Dr Chris J. Creteko Dept. of Molecular Genetics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, who provided images and stage information on the embryonic development of the bat. (More? Other Embryos - Bat) (Email: Richard Behringer Chris Creteko)
Thanks to Dr Sally Dunwoodie, Developmental Biology Program, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute who provided both images and information on (mouse) placental development. (More? Placenta Notes) (Email: Sally Dunwoodie)
Thanks to the late Associate Professor David Walsh, Dept. of Anatomy, University of NSW, who contributed not only a passion to development/teratology research, teaching, collaboration, discussions, and professionally to The Teratology Society, but also a wicked sense of humour and a research scholarship in embryology which bears his name. (More? News Story- The David Walsh Memorial Scholarship | The David Walsh Memorial Scholarship | The Teratology Society)
Thanks to Peter Coombs, Department of Medical Imaging & Radiation Sciences Faculty of Medicine, Nursing & Health Sciences Monash University who provided ultrasound movie on fetal rabbit development. (More? Other Embryos - Rabbit) (Email: Peter Coombs | Web page)
Thanks to Prof Ryoichiro Kageyama, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8507, Japan who provided a research movie on mesoderm development. (More? Movies - Mesoderm) (Email: Prof R. Kageyama | Lab. of Growth Regulation | Institute for Virus Research)
Thanks to Dr Cyrus Papan, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, 31 Biopolis Way, The Nanos 04-01, Singapore 138669, Singapore who provided magnetic resonance imaging movies on Xenopus blastocyst development. (More? Movies - Magnetic Resonance Imaging) (Email: Cyrus Papan)
Thanks to Professor Julia Potter, Director of Pathology and Dr Sanjiv Jain Director of Anatomical Pathology ACT Government who provided an image of a hydatidiform mole from the ACT Pathology site. (More? Notes - Week 2 Abnormalities)
Thanks to Dr Angela Giangrande for glial migration movies from her paper Aigouy B, Lepelletier L, Giangrande A.Glial chain migration requires pioneer cells. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 5;28(45):11635-41. (More? Neural Development Movies)
Thanks also to UNSW students Matthew Chircop, Annu Kumar, John Ozmen who spent some revision hours preparing the labelled microfiche images.
Thanks also to Anthony Tzannes who spent some revision hours preparing clickable links from the microfiche images.
Thanks also to Imran Marzook and Kevin Lee who prepared histology Lab images.
Thanks also to AAshish Kumar an Independent Learning Project (ILP 2006) medical student who prepared 3 dimensional models of the stage 13 and stage 22 embryos. (More? 3D Models)
UNSW Technical Support
Thanks also to Ted Crawford, Paul Halasz and Craig Howie for their contribution of considerable knowledge of computer systems.
NCBI | National Library of Medicine | NZ National Women's Health | Proceedings of the The National Academy of Sciences | Anatomy of the Human Body | UWA - Blue Histology | Institute and Museum of the History of Science | Government of Manitoba Report | Entrez - 3D macromolecules | Environmental Health Perspectives | PediNeuroLogic Exam | GeneTests Web Site | GeneReviews |
Thanks to Susan Kimball, GenBank User Services, NCBI for permission to use the Public Domain NCBI text. NCBI Homepage
Thanks to Shiva Sabihi for permission to use the Public Domain NHMRC documents.
Thanks to Debra Copeland, for providing fetal heart beat for public use on the Internet Archive
Images from the History of Medicine (IHM) database courtesy of the National Library of Medicine.
Images from NZ National Women's Health courtesy of Newborn Intensive Care teaching resources.
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Images from Proceedings of the The National Academy of Sciences are reproduced for educational use.
"Anyone may, without requesting permission, use original figures or tables published in PNAS for noncommercial and educational use (i.e., in a review article, in a book that is not for sale) provided that the original source and copyright notice are cited." (01/07) PNAS - Rights and Permissions | PNAS - current.
(More? Mobile Grays Images).
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Thanks to Sabina Bernacchini from Institute and Museum of the History of Science (Italy) IMSS for allowing reproduction of selected images from the Surgery and Obstetrics exhibition on this embryology education site. Development History- 1770 - Obstetric Models | IMSS | IMSS exhibit Room XVIII - Surgery and Obstetrics
Images from Report of the Review and Implementation Committee for The Report of the Manitoba Pediatric Cardiac Surgery Inquest May 2001 showing heart abnormalities courtesy Government of Manitoba (More? Manitoba Health Report).
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Images of 3D macromolecules from Entrez's 3D-structure database
Chen J, Anderson JB, DeWeese-Scott C, Fedorova ND, Geer LY, He S, Hurwitz DI, Jackson JD, Jacobs AR, Lanczycki CJ, Liebert CA, Liu C, Madej T, Marchler-Bauer A, Marchler GH, Mazumder R, Nikolskaya AN, Rao BS, Panchenko AR, Shoemaker BA, Simonyan V, Song JS, Thiessen PA, Vasudevan S, Wang Y, Yamashita RA, Yin JJ, Bryant SH. MMDB: Entrez's 3D-structure database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Jan 1;31(1):474-7.
Images and data from Environmental Health Perspectives (EPH)
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Research articles from EHP may be used freely; however, articles from the Environews section of EHP may contain photographs or figures copyrighted by other commercial organizations and individuals that may not be used without obtaining prior approval from both the EHP editors and the holder of the copyright. Use of any materials published in EHP is acknowledged when used ("Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives") and provide pertinent reference information for the article from which the material was reproduced. EPH Copyright/Permissions."
Movies from the PediNeuroLogic Exam website are used by permission of Paul D. Larsen, M.D., University of Nebraska Medical Center and Suzanne S. Stensaas, Ph.D., University of Utah School of Medicine. Additional materials were drawn from resources provided by Alejandro Stern, Stern Foundation, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Kathleen Digre, M.D., University of Utah; and Daniel Jacobson, M.D., Marshfield Clinic, Wisconsin. The movies are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commerical-ShareAlike 2.5 License.
Images from the Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine website by Loren Yamamoto, MD, Alson S. Inaba, MD, Robert M. DiMauro, MD Kapiolani Medical Center For Women And Children Dept. Pediatrics, University of Hawaii John A. Burns School of Medicine The original website Radiology Cases In Pediatric Emergency Medicine should always be cited and images are used under the website terms "This is free software. Feel free to distribute this software to others."
The following Journals have given permission to reproduce specific journal content on this educational website either under Copyright Clearance application or allow reuse under Creative Commons Attribution License. (Note - the list below is not comprehensive and citations are included on the pages where material is reused, please contact the author directly if this is not found to be the case with any material used on this educational site).
Journals: Journal of Cell Biology | Journal of Experimental Medicine | Journal of General Physiology | Nature | Physiol. Genomics | Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA | Public Library of Science | Rockefeller University Press |
Epigenetics: Unfinished symphony | Endothelial tubes assemble from intracellular vacuoles in vivo | Klimanskaya I, Chung Y, Becker S, Lu SJ, Lanza R. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from single blastomeres. Nature. 2006 Aug 23 image copyright |
Soufan AT, Ruijter JM, van den Hoff MJ, de Boer PA, Hagoort J, Moorman AF. Three-dimensional reconstruction of gene expression patterns during cardiac development. Physiol Genomics. 2003 May 13;13(3):187-95. Review.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS)
Public Library of Science (PLoS)
Material from the Public Library of Science (PLoS) journals is reproduced under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL), authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, and/or copy articles in PLoS journals, so long as the original authors and source are credited. This broad license was developed to facilitate open access to, and free use of, original works of all types. (More? Open Access License)
Movie - Movement of Nuclei in Early Stages of Neural Rod Formation Staudt N, Houart C. The Prethalamus Is Established during Gastrulation and Influences Diencephalic Regionalization. PLoS Biol. 2007 Mar 6;5(4):e69
Movie - In vitro fertilization Motosugi N, Dietrich JE, Polanski Z, Solter D, Hiiragi T. Space asymmetry directs preferential sperm entry in the absence of polarity in the mouse oocyte. PLoS Biol. 2006 May;4(5):e135.
Rockefeller University Press
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Links: Creative Commons | Copyright Clearance Center | JCB Article - You wrote it; you own it! | PubMed - Hill E, Rossner M. You wrote it; you own it! J Cell Biol. 2008 Apr 30.| Journal of Cell Biology |
UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4
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