Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development

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Introduction

This section of notes gives an overview of how the stomach and duodenum develops. The GIT is best imagined as a simple tube, the upper part being the foregut diverticulum, which is further divided into oesophagus and stomach.

During week 4 at the level where the stomach will form the tube begins to dilate, forming an enlarged lumen. The dorsal border grows more rapidly than ventral, which establishes the greater curvature of the stomach. A second rotation (of 90 degrees) occurs on the longitudinal axis establishing the adult orientation of the stomach.


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GIT Histology Links: Upper GIT | Salivary Gland | Smooth Muscle Histology | Liver | Gall Bladder | Pancreas | Colon | Histology Stains | Histology | GIT Development
Historic Embryology
1878 Alimentary Canal | 1882 The Organs of the Inner Germ-Layer The Alimentary Tube with its Appended Organs | 1902 The Organs of Digestion | 1907 Development of the Digestive System | 1907 Atlas | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1912 Digestive Tract | 1917 Entodermal Canal | 1918 Anatomy | 1921 Alimentary Tube | 2014 GIT Notes | Historic Disclaimer
Human Embryo: 1908 13-14 Somite Embryo | 1926 22 Somite Embryo | 1907 23 Somite Embryo | 1937 25 Somite Embryo | 1914 27 Somite Embryo | 1914 Week 7 Embryo
Animal Development: 1913 Chicken | 1951 Frog


Historic Embryology: 1912 Stomach

Some Recent Findings

  • FGF4 and retinoic acid direct differentiation of hESCs into PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.[1] "Retinoic acid (RA) and fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF4) signaling control endoderm patterning and pancreas induction/expansion.'
  • FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. [2] "The development of digestive organs in vertebrates involves active epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. In the chicken proventriculus (glandular stomach), the morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation of the epithelium are controlled by the inductive signaling factors that are secreted from the underlying mesenchyme. ... FGF10 signaling, mediated by FGFR1b and/or FGFR2b, is required for proliferation and gland formation in the epithelium in the developing chick embryo."
More recent papers
Mark Hill.jpg
This table shows an automated computer PubMed search using the listed sub-heading term.
  • Therefore the list of references do not reflect any editorial selection of material based on content or relevance.
  • References appear in this list based upon the date of the actual page viewing.

References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.

Links: References | Discussion Page | Pubmed Most Recent


Search term: Stomach Embryology

Meltem Kolgazi, Cigdem Cantali-Ozturk, Rabia Deniz, Zarife Nigar Ozdemir-Kumral, Meral Yuksel, Serap Sirvanci, Berrak C Yeğen Nesfatin-1 alleviates gastric damage via direct antioxidant mechanisms. J. Surg. Res.: 2014; PMID:25082746 G Sandal, N Aslan, L Duman, A R Ormeci VACTERL association with a rare vertebral anomaly (butterfly vertebra) in a case of monochorionic twin. Genet. Couns.: 2014, 25(2);231-5 PMID:25059024 Donghua Liu, Xi C He, Pengxu Qian, Nick Barker, Paul A Trainor, Hans Clevers, Huiwen Liu, Linheng Li Leucine-rich Repeat-containing G-protein-coupled Receptor 5 Marks Short-term Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells during Mouse Embryonic Development. J. Biol. Chem.: 2014, 289(34);23809-16 PMID:24966324 Dilek Burukoglu, Cengiz Baycu, Fulya Taplamacioglu, Erhan Sahin, Ezgi Bektur Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory meloxicam on stomach, kidney, and liver of rats. Toxicol Ind Health: 2014; PMID:24958741 Piotr Donizy, Julia Rudno-Rudzinska, Agnieszka Halon, Mateusz Dziegala, Jedrzej Kabarowski, Ewelina Frejlich, Piotr Dziegiel, Wojciech Kielan, Rafal Matkowski Intratumoral But Not Peritumoral Lymphatic Vessel Density Measured by D2-40 Expression Predicts Poor Outcome in Gastric Cancer - ROC Curve Analysis to Find Cut-off Point. Anticancer Res.: 2014, 34(6);3113-3118 PMID:24922680

Components of Stomach Formation

Developing stomach mid embryonic period (stage 13)

primitive endoderm

  • foregut diverticulum (pocket)
    • pharyngeal region of foregut
      • laryngo-tracheal groove (see respiratory tract)
      • oesophageal region of foregut
        • oesophagus
          • stomach
            • glandular/proventricular/pyloric stenosis
              • fundus/pyloric antrum
                • pyloric sphincter
            • dorsal mesogastrium
              • lieno-renal ligament
                • splenic primordium
                  • spleen
                • gastro-splenic ligament
                • duodenum (rostral half)
  • foregut-midgut junction
  • midgut region
  • hindgut diverticulum (pocket)

Modified from [3]

Movies

Endoderm 002 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Endoderm
Page | Play
Amnion 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Amniotic Cavity
Page | Play
Gastrointestinal tract growth 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Tract Growth
Page | Play
Stomach rotation 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Stomach Rotation
Page | Play
Lesser sac 01 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Lesser sac
Page | Play
Greater omentum 001 icon.jpg
 ‎‎Greater Omentum
Page | Play

Stage 13

stage 13 embryo

The images below link to larger cross-sections of the mid-embryonic period (end week 4) stage 13 embryo starting just above the level of the stomach and then in sequence through the stomach to the level of the duodenum.

Stage 13 image 072.jpg Stage 13 image 073.jpg Stage 13 image 074.jpg
D2 Cardio-oesophageal junction D3 Stomach body D4 Stomach body
Stage 13 image 075.jpg Stage 13 image 076.jpg Stage 13 image 077.jpg
D5 Stomach body D6 Pyloric junction D7 Duodenum


Stage13-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
Page | Play
This is an animation based on a reconstruction of the above embryo entire stage 13 gastrointestinal tract.


Links: Carnegie stage 13 - serial sections | Embryo Serial Sections | Movies

Stage 22

The images below link to larger cross-sections of the end of the embryonic period (week 8) stage 22 embryo starting just above the level of the stomach and then in sequence through the stomach to the level of the duodenum. Note how the stomach is "embedded" within the large developing liver.

stage 22 embryo
Stage 22 image 082.jpg Stage 22 image 083.jpg Stage 22 image 084.jpg Stage 22 image 085.jpg
E5 Oesophagus E6 Cardio-oesophageal junction E7 Stomach body Pyloric junction F1 Stomach body Pylorus
Stage 22 image 086.jpg Stage 22 image 087.jpg Stage 22 image 088.jpg Stage 22 image 089.jpg
F2 Stomach body F3 Stomach body Duodenum F4 Duodenal-Jejunal junction F5 Duodenum Jejunum


Stage22-GIT-icon.jpg
 ‎‎Gastrointestinal
Page | Play
This is an animation based on a reconstruction of the above embryo entire stage 22 gastrointestinal tract.


Links: Carnegie stage 22 - serial sections | Embryo Serial Sections | Movies

Stomach Mesentery

In the second trimester, the ventral and dorsal mesenteries associated with the stomach are still anatomically different from the newborn. The figure shows a lateral view of this process comparing the early second trimester arrangement with the newborn structure.

Ventral Mesogastrium

Attached to the superior end of the stomach will form the lesser omentum. This structure will connect the lesser curvature of the stomach to the liver as a ligamentous structure.

Dorsal Mesogastrium

Attached to the inferior end of the stomach initially as an extended fold, this later fuses as a single "apron-like" structure, the greater omentum. Fusion will also incorporate the transverse colon part of the large intestine. This will also contribute the gastrosplenic ligament (gastrolienal ligament).

Greater-omentum.jpg The greater omentum hangs like an apron over the small intestine and transverse colon. It begins attacted to the inferior end of the stomach as a fold of the dorsal mesogastrium which later fuses to form the structure we recognise anatomically. The figure below shows a lateral view of this process comparing the early second trimester arrangement with the newborn structure.

Duodenum/Pancreas Rotation

Pancreas rotation cartoon After the stomach the initial portion of the gastrointestinal tract tube is the duodenum which initially lies in the midline within the peritoneal cavity.

This region, along with the attached pancreas, undergoes rotation to become a retroperitoneal structure.

This diagram shows the rotation with spinal cord at the top, vertebral body then dorsal aorta then pertioneal wall and cavity.

Stomach Hormonal Development

The gastrointestinal tract has its own complex entero-endocrine system (enterohormones) that regulates many regional tract functions.

Cells within the stomach express a range of peptide hormones known to regulate a range of gastric functions including secretion of digestive enzymes, mucous and the movement of the luminal contents. The list below shows the earliest detectible presence of specific hormone-containing cells in regions of the developing human stomach.

Hormonal Timecourse

8 weeks - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

10 weeks - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.

11 weeks - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.

Expression data based upon[4]

Other Gut Peptides

  • Cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (increase satiety and decrease food intake) and ghrelin

Mouse

The images below show differential gene expression of some selected markers during development (E10.5 and E13.5) of the mouse gastrointestinal tract.[5]

Mouse-Gastrointestinal-tract-E10.5-01.jpg

Mouse-Gastrointestinal-tract-E13.5-01.jpg

Links: Mouse Development | Full original figure | E10.5 | E13.5

References

  1. Martina Johannesson, Anders Ståhlberg, Jacqueline Ameri, Fredrik Wolfhagen Sand, Karin Norrman, Henrik Semb FGF4 and retinoic acid direct differentiation of hESCs into PDX1-expressing foregut endoderm in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. PLoS ONE: 2009, 4(3);e4794 PMID:19277121
  2. Masahiro Shin, Sumihare Noji, Annette Neubüser, Sadao Yasugi FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. Dev. Biol.: 2006, 294(1);11-23 PMID:16616737
  3. Kaufman & Bard, The Anatomical Basis of Mouse Development, 1999 Academic Press
  4. B A Stein, A M Buchan, J Morris, J M Polak The ontogeny of regulatory peptide-containing cells in the human fetal stomach: an immunocytochemical study. J. Histochem. Cytochem.: 1983, 31(9);1117-25 PMID:6136542
  5. Makoto Matsuyama, Shinichi Aizawa, Akihiko Shimono Sfrp controls apicobasal polarity and oriented cell division in developing gut epithelium. PLoS Genet.: 2009, 5(3);e1000427 PMID:19300477 | PLoS Genet.


Reviews

Aaron M Zorn, James M Wells Vertebrate endoderm development and organ formation. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol.: 2009, 25;221-51 PMID:19575677

Kimiko Fukuda, Sadao Yasugi The molecular mechanisms of stomach development in vertebrates. Dev. Growth Differ.: 2005, 47(6);375-82 PMID:16109035

S Yasugi Regulation of pepsinogen gene expression in epithelial cells of vertebrate stomach during development. Int. J. Dev. Biol.: 1994, 38(2);273-9 PMID:7526882

L R Johnson Functional development of the stomach. Annu. Rev. Physiol.: 1985, 47;199-215 PMID:3922287

J S Deren Development of structure and function in the fetal and newborn stomach. Am. J. Clin. Nutr.: 1971, 24(1);144-59 PMID:4923462


Articles

Masahiro Shin, Sumihare Noji, Annette Neubüser, Sadao Yasugi FGF10 is required for cell proliferation and gland formation in the stomach epithelium of the chicken embryo. Dev. Biol.: 2006, 294(1);11-23 PMID:16616737

S Yasugi Epithelial cell differentiation during stomach development. Hum. Cell: 2000, 13(4);177-84 PMID:11329933


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Images

Stage14 stomach.jpg


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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2014) Embryology Gastrointestinal Tract - Stomach Development. Retrieved September 2, 2014, from https://php.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php?title=Gastrointestinal_Tract_-_Stomach_Development

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© Dr Mark Hill 2014, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G