Genital - Female Development
|Embryology - 30 Nov 2015 Translate|
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The male and female reproductive systems develop initially "indifferently", it is the product of the Y chromosome SRY gene that initially makes the "difference". The paramesonephric (Müllerian Duct) contribute the majority of female internal genital tract, while the mesonephric duct degenerates.
The mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
There are many different issues to consider in the development of the genital system. Importantly its sex chromosome dependence, late embryonic/fetal differential development, complex morphogenic changes, long time-course, hormonal sensitivity and hormonal influences make it a system prone to many different abnormalities.
- Genital Links: Introduction | Lecture - Medicine | Lecture - Science | Medicine - Practical | Primordial Germ Cell | Meiosis | Female | Ovary | Oocyte | Uterus | Vagina | Reproductive Cycles | Menstrual Cycle | Male | Testis | Spermatozoa | Prostate | Genital Movies | Abnormalities | Assisted Reproductive Technology | Puberty | Category:Genital
|Historic Embryology - Genital|
|1902 The Uro-Genital System | 1912 Urinogenital Organ Development | 1921 Urogenital Development | 1921 External Genital Development | 1927 Female Foetus 15 cm | 1943 Testes Descent | Historic Disclaimer|
Some Recent Findings
|More recent papers|
References listed on the rest of the content page and the associated discussion page (listed under the publication year sub-headings) do include some editorial selection based upon both relevance and availability.
Minghui Li, Yunlv Sun, Jiue Zhao, Hongjuan Shi, Sheng Zeng, Kai Ye, Dongneng Jiang, Linyan Zhou, Lina Sun, Wenjing Tao, Yoshitaka Nagahama, Thomas D Kocher, Deshou Wang A Tandem Duplicate of Anti-Müllerian Hormone with a Missense SNP on the Y Chromosome Is Essential for Male Sex Determination in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. PLoS Genet.: 2015, 11(11);e1005678 PubMed 26588702
Diego Robledo, Laia Ribas, Rosa Cal, Laura Sánchez, Francesc Piferrer, Paulino Martínez, Ana Viñas Gene expression analysis at the onset of sex differentiation in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). BMC Genomics: 2015, 16(1);973 PubMed 26581195
Arka Pal, Beatriz Vicoso The X chromosome of hemipteran insects: conservation, dosage compensation and sex-biased expression. Genome Biol Evol: 2015; PubMed 26556591
Q Wu, Y Chen, Y Wang, L Lin Sex differential marker FD for rapid sex identification of Litsea cubeba. Genet. Mol. Res.: 2015, 14(4);12820-12827 PubMed 26505433
Agnieszka P Lipinska, Sophia Ahmed, Akira F Peters, Sylvain Faugeron, J Mark Cock, Susana M Coelho Development of PCR-Based Markers to Determine the Sex of Kelps. PLoS ONE: 2015, 10(10);e0140535 PubMed 26496392
- Human Embryology (2nd ed.) Larson Chapter 10 p261-306
- The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented Embryology (6th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 13 p303-346
- Before We Are Born (5th ed.) Moore and Persaud Chapter 14 p289-326
- Essentials of Human Embryology, Larson Chapter 10 p173-205
- Human Embryology, Fitzgerald and Fitzgerald Chapter 21-22 p134-152
- Developmental Biology (6th ed.) Gilbert Chapter 14 Intermediate Mesoderm
|Urogenital Sinus||Urogenital Septum|
Three main stages during development, mesonephric/paramesonephric duct changes are one of the first male/female differences that occur in development, while external genitaila remain indeterminate in appearance for quite a while.
- Differentiation of gonad (Sex determination)
- Differentiation of internal genital organs
- Differentiation of external genital organs
The 2nd and 3rd stages dependent on endocrine gonad. Reproductive development has a long maturation timecourse, begining in the embryo and finishing in puberty. (More? Puberty Development)
Gonad - Ovary
Primordial germ cell migration (mouse)
|Migration 1||Migration 2||Migration 3|
Historic Images of Genital Changes
|Urogenital indifferent||Urogenital female|
Fetal Week 10
- Paramesonephric duct - Wnt-7a Pax-8 expression associated with the initial stages of paramesonephric duct development
- Ovary - Notum, Phlda2, Runx-1 and Msx1 genes
|Y and X Chromosomes|
| X inactivation
DAX1 (NR0B1) is a nuclear receptor with a characteristic C-terminal ligand binding domain, but an atypical DNA binding domain, for review see DAX1 protein is localized mainly in the nucleus and can bind to an RA responsive element (RARE).
- Links: OMIM 300473
- Laurent Boulanger, Maëlle Pannetier, Laurence Gall, Aurélie Allais-Bonnet, Maëva Elzaiat, Daniel Le Bourhis, Nathalie Daniel, Christophe Richard, Corinne Cotinot, Norbert B Ghyselinck, Eric Pailhoux FOXL2 is a female sex-determining gene in the goat. Curr. Biol.: 2014, 24(4);404-8 PubMed 24485832
- Congxing Lin, Yan Yin, G Michael Veith, Alexander V Fisher, Fanxin Long, Liang Ma Temporal and spatial dissection of Shh signaling in genital tubercle development. Development: 2009, 136(23);3959-67 PubMed 19906863
- Xinyu Wu, Christopher Ferrara, Ellen Shapiro, Irina Grishina Bmp7 expression and null phenotype in the urogenital system suggest a role in re-organization of the urethral epithelium. Gene Expr. Patterns: 2009, 9(4);224-30 PubMed 19159697
- Edward R B McCabe DAX1: Increasing complexity in the roles of this novel nuclear receptor. Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.: 2007, 265-266;179-82 PubMed 17210221 | PMC1847396/
- S Vainio, M Heikkilä, A Kispert, N Chin, A P McMahon Female development in mammals is regulated by Wnt-4 signalling. Nature: 1999, 397(6718);405-9 PubMed 9989404 | Nature
- Florence Naillat, Wenying Yan, Riikka Karjalainen, Anna Liakhovitskaia, Anatoly Samoylenko, Qi Xu, Zhandong Sun, Bairong Shen, Alexander Medvinsky, Susan Quaggin, Seppo J Vainio Identification of the Genes regulated by Wnt-4, a critical signal for commitment of the ovary. Exp. Cell Res.: 2015; PubMed 25645944 | Exp Cell Res.
Yasmin Sajjad Development of the genital ducts and external genitalia in the early human embryo. J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.: 2010, 36(5);929-37 PubMed 20846260
Sérgio Conti Ribeiro, Renata Assef Tormena, Thais Villela Peterson, Marina de Oliveira Gonzáles, Priscila Gonçalves Serrano, José Alcione Macedo de Almeida, Edmund Chada Baracat Müllerian duct anomalies: review of current management. Sao Paulo Med J: 2009, 127(2);92-6 PubMed 19597684
Ryozo Hashimoto Development of the human Müllerian duct in the sexually undifferentiated stage. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol: 2003, 272(2);514-9 PubMed 12740945
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Cite this page: Hill, M.A. (2015) Embryology Genital - Female Development. Retrieved November 30, 2015, from https://embryology.med.unsw.edu.au/embryology/index.php/Genital_-_Female_Development
- © Dr Mark Hill 2015, UNSW Embryology ISBN: 978 0 7334 2609 4 - UNSW CRICOS Provider Code No. 00098G