There are many sources for statistical information relating to Embryology. In particular, childbirth, maternal health, childhood disease and health.
As well as international statistics I have included data that specifically relates to Australia. These statistics should also be compared with those for Australian Congenital Abnormalities.
A new page showing some brief UNSW Embryology Website Statistics is also included in this section of notes.
Page Links: Introduction | Some Recent Findings | World Health Organization (WHO) | Australian Bureau of Statistics | National Health and Medical Research Council (Australia) | CIA World Factbook 1998 | Congenital Abnormalities | References | WWW Links | Glossary | Terms
Other Pages: Australian Statistics | Australian Maternal Statistics | World Statistics | WHO World Statistics | In Vitro Fertilization | Australian - Congenital Abnormalities by System | Stillbirth and Perinatal Death |
See also UNSW Embryology notes on Normal Development - Birth - Stillbirth and Perinatal Death, which includes data on stillbirths and perinatal deaths from a number of different national sources.
World Health Organization (WHO) relating to many human health issues, including fertility, birth control, birthrate and disease.
Some data available locally on Statistical Data page.
Australian Bureau of Statistics has a publication Australia Now- A Statistical Profile is an easy to read compiled population data, is a comprehensive collection relating to the Australian population as well as other statistical information.
Some data is available locally on Australian population page
CIA World Factbook 1998 contains small thumbnail information about countries fro amn "American" viewpoint.
Population data on a country by
country basis including male/female ratios.
Some information from 1997 Factbook has been included locally:
The Australian entry (how spies see up).
Birth Data for some comparative countries.
Each section of the notes covering early development and specific systems contain references to specific abnormalities (on Page 2 of each notes section). The best source for Australian statistical data is the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare National Perinatal Statistics Unit, UNSW which publishes "Congenital Malformations Australia" every 2 years. Be aware that some congenital abnormalities, by their nature, affect multiple systems. In the USA, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) keeps and publishes relevant statistical information. A very difficult issue in abnormal development are the many different Ethical implications.
This current page is a link to Normal and Abnormal Development and Population Data.
These developmental abnormalities usually involve only small DNA mutations affecting individual or a few genes, two exceptions are the major chromosomal abnormalities usualy trisomy; trisomy 21 (Down syndrome) and trisomy 18 (Edwards syndrome) (also trisomy 9, 13, 15). Note that the occurance of chromosomal abnormalities also increases with increasing maternal age.
There are many pamphlets providing information about prenatal diagnosis (see NSW State Health Publication Checking your baby's health before birth).
A better understanding of abnormal development can also be gained from looking at normal birth statistics
Maternal Derived Abnormalities
Relate to lifestyle, environment and nutrition. Some examples of this form of abnormality are the impact of excess alcohol on neural development (Fetal alcohol syndrome), viral infection (rubella) at a critical stage of development, inadequate dietry folate intake (neural tube defects), effects of prescription drugs (Thalidomide- limb development) and even maternal endocrine function (thyroid development).
In addition to these obvious maternally-derived abnormalities, there is growing evidence that the interuterine environment has a strong influence on later postnatal health. This theory is based on the early statistical analysis of disease/longevity in babies with low birth weights in England by Barker, and has been called the "Barker Hypothesis". (More? Barker Hypothesis)
You should look at normal development. Development Notes
Alternatively, go on to look at Systematic Development of organs and tissues.
birth rate statictical term typically calculated by dividing the number of live births in a population in a year by the mid-year resident population. (More? Normal Development - Birth)
fetal death rate statisically refers to the number of fetal deaths with a stated or presumed gestation of 20 weeks or more divided by the sum of live births plus fetal deaths, per 1,000 live births plus fetal deaths. Late fetal death rate shifts the stated or presumed gestational age to 28 weeks.
high risk pregnancy term relates to multiple pregnancies, previous pregnancy problem, health problem (either before or due to the pregnancy) and age (over 35 years). Examples of maternal health conditions leading to high risk pregnancy include: autoimmune disorders, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, kidney problems and sexually transmitted diseases.
For those wanting to see dynamic processes of development (and have a reasonably quick connection) then the Movies pages are good for watching changes occur.
The study of human development has relied extensively on studying the process in other model animals. For those wanting to see the process of development in other species then the other embryos pages are a good start.