These set of notes under development.
Selected cells within the following organs also contribute to endocrine regulation.
The gastrointestinal tract has its own complex entero-endocrine system (enterohormones) that regulates many regional tract functions.
Cells within the stomach express a range of peptide hormones known to regulate a range of gastric functions including secretion of digestive enzymes, mucous and the movement of the luminal contents. The list below shows the earliest detectible presence of specific hormone-containing cells in regions of the developing human stomach.
8 weeks - Gastrin containing cells in stomach antrum. Somatostatin cells in both the antrum and the fundus.
10 weeks - Glucagon containing cells in stomach fundus.
11 weeks - Serotonin containing cells in both the antrum and the fundus.
(Data: Stein BA, Buchan AM, Morris J, Polak JM. The ontogeny of regulatory peptide-containing cells in the human fetal stomach: an immunocytochemical study. J Histochem Cytochem. 1983 Sep;31(9):1117-25.)
Other gut peptides: cholecystokinin (CCK), pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (increase satiety and decrease food intake) and ghrelin
Ghrelin is produced in the stomach as a long-term regulator of energy metabolism and short-term regulation of feeding.