(Latin, vacca = cow) Term used to describe inoculation, because the first vaccine was obtained from cows, the cowpox virus, by Edward Jenner. Vaccination is the process of inoculation of a substance (vaccine) into the body for the purpose of producing active immunity (immune response) against a disease. Vaccination is therefore a misnomer, used initially by Louis Pasteur, for inoculation. (More? Viral Infection | Rubella | The Jenner Museum)
An acronym for a group of developmental abnormalities: Vertebral anomalies, Anal atresia, Cardiac defect (often ventricular septal defect), TracheoEsophageal fistula, Renal (kidney) abnormalities and Limb abnormalities. Recently defined as a multiple polytopic developmental field defect. (More? Abnormal Development)
Clinical birth aid, referring to a suction cap device used on fetal head to aid birth (parturition).
(More? Normal Development - Birth)
The female muscular tube between uterus and vestibule, part of female external genitalia.
(More? Genital System - Female)
(Latin, vagus = wandering) cranial nerve X (CN X) A mixed nerve that leaves the head and neck to innervate gastrointestinal tract (pharynx, esophagus, stomach) respiratory tract (larynx, lungs), cardiac (heart) and abdominal viscera. This mixed nerve has sensory, motor and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate).
An anticonvulsants or antiepileptic drug used to prevent and minimize seizures. This drug, like other anticonvulsants, is also teratogenic and increases the occurance of neural tube defects (NTDs). (Other anticonvulsants: Carbamazepine, Clonazepam, Ethosuximide, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin, Primidone)
(Latin, aquaeductus vestibuli) A component of the inner ear, term used to describe the intraosseous part of the endolymphatic duct and sac system.
Serous membrane which forms the inner lining of pleural cavity, both covering and attached to the lungs. Embryonically derived from the splanchnic mesoderm. The outer pleural layer, parietal pleura, is derived from mesoderm of the thoracic cavity body wall.
(More? Respiratory Notes)
von Willebrand factor
(VWF) an adhesive protein which plays a critical role in primary hemostasis by allowing platelet aggregation.
(More? Heart Notes - Blood)
(VR) receptor was cloned in 1997, VR agonists (capsaicin and RTX) are currently utilized for a number of clinical syndromes (intractable neuropathic pain, spinal detrusor hyperreflexia, and bladder hypersensitivity). VR antagonist (capsazepine) are also currently being considered for therapeutic applications related to pain.
(VZV) the chickenpox virus which can severely affect pregnant woman, fetus, and newborn babies. The Congenital defects can result from fetal infection (congenital varicella syndrome): skin lesions, limb defects (hypoplasia or paresis), and neurological (microcephal, ophthalmic lesions) .
(vasa praevia) A placental abnormality where the fetal vessels either lie close too or cross the inner cervical os (opening).
Term used in relation to blood vessels.
(More? Heart Notes)
(VEGF) A secreted protein growth factor family, which stimulates the proliferation of vasular endotheial cells and therefore blood vessel growth. Has other roles in embryonic development.
(VE-PTP) A phosphatase involved in vascular development through modulation of a receptor tyrosine kinase (Tie2) activity, the receptor of angiopoietin. Phosphatases remove and kinases add a phosphate group to proteins, phosphorylation is a common intracellular signaling pathway.
A developmental abnormality, acronym for V (vertebral anomalies), A (anal atresia), TE (tracheo-esophageal fistula) and R (radial dysplasia). (V and R also include vascular and renal anomalies). Note that the acronym VACTERL syndrome now used, includes C (cardiac) and the L (limb anomalies).
(More? Abnormal Development)
Part of the circulatory system, returning blood to the heart. Nomenclature based upon direction of flow, towards the heart. In the embryo, the placental vein brings oxygenated blood to the heart. In the adult, pulmonary vein brings oxygenated blood from lungs to heart. Vein walls have histologically a different overall structure from ateries.
(More? Heart Notes)
short hairs seen on newborn infant, these hairs are only a centimetre or two long and contain little or no pigment. Follicles that produce them do not have sebaceous glands and never produce any other kind of hairs.
(More? Integumentary Development - Hair)
The two ventricles form the muscular-walled blood discharging chambers of the heart. The heart atria receive blood.
(More? Heart Notes)
Individual bones (33 human) of the axial skeleton that enclose the spinal cord and form, with the intervertebral discs, the vertebral column. Vertebra bodies form first by endochondrial ossification of segmental sclerotomal mesenchyme which in turn came from pairs of somites. (mesoderm -> para-axial mesoderm -> somites -> paired sclerotome -> vertebral body) During vertebra formation there is a "segmental shift" out of register with the original somites. In development, the vertebral arch (enclosing the spinal cord) remains open dorsally and tied by a ligament to allow growth of the spinal cord.
The bony tunnel formed by vertebra enclosing the spinal cord.
(More? Axial Skeleton)
Term given to the complete structure formed from the alternating segments of vertebra and intervertebral discs which support the spinal cord.
(cephalic presentation) birth term, referring to when the fetal head is closest to the cervix, most common and safest birth position. (More? Normal Development - Birth)
Plural of villus, which is a thin projection from a surface.
(VUE) A placental pathological condition.
(More? Placenta Abnormalities)
(VCT) Trophoblast cells located on chorionic villi (as opposed to extravillous cytotrophoblasts) that can also fuse to form the syncytiotrophoblasts.
A vinca alkaloid used as a chemotherapeutic antitumour drug that targets tubulin. The molecule forms a wedge at the interface of two tubulin molecules, interfering with tubulin and then microtubule assembly and therefore disrupts mitotic spindle formation.
A dicarboximide fungicide shown to cause gonad tumours (Leydig cell) and atrophy in adult rat. Perinatal exposure in rats also inhibits morphological sex differentiation.
(More? Endocrine Abnormalities | Endocrine Abnormalities | PubMed Kavlock R, Cummings A. Mode of action: inhibition of androgen receptor function--vinclozolin-induced malformations in reproductive development. Crit Rev Toxicol. 2005 Oct-Nov;35(8-9):721-6.
(Latin, virulenctia = virus poison) morbidity and mortality of a host caused by parasites and pathogens (relative infectiousness).
(More? Viral Infection )
cannot reproduce by itself and therefore it infect cells to use the cell machinery to produce more virus. Different viruses have genetic material as single- or double-stranded RNA or DNA. The infectious virus particle is called a "virion" and is the genetic material packed in a protein shell. Viruses come in many genetic sizes, as little as 4 proteins up to 200 proteins. Many cancers can be caused by viruses (papilloma viruses, hepatitis B and C viruses, Epstein-Barr virus and human T-cell lymphotropic virus). Virus-induced cancers account for about 20% of worldwide cancer incidence.
The inner lining of pleural cavity derived from contact epithelia with lung bud of pericardioperitoneal canals from intraembryonic coelom.
visceral smooth muscle
The muscle in walls of visceral organs. One of the 3 types of muscle in the body (skeletal, cardiac, smooth).
(Latin vita = life) | entry to be edited | Vitamins form 2 major classes the fat soluble (D, E, A, and K) and water soluble (B, and C). These organic compounds are required at very low concentrations and function as cellular metabolic regulators. The specific roles for vitamins, other than B (folic acid), during embryonic development (other than in maternal nutrition) is unknown.
Munns C, Zacharin MR, Rodda CP, Batch JA, Morley R, Cranswick NE, Craig ME, Cutfield WS, Hofman PL, Taylor BJ, Grover SR, Pasco JA, Burgner D, Cowell CT; Paediatric Endocrine Group; Paediatric Bone Australasia. Prevention and treatment of infant and childhood vitamin D deficiency in Australia and New Zealand: a consensus statement. Med J Aust. 2006 Sep 4;185(5):268-72. PMID: 16948623 Stroud ML, Stilgoe S, Stott VE, Alhabian O, Salman K. Vitamin D - a review. Aust Fam Physician. 2008 Dec;37(12):1002-5. Review. PMID: 19142273 | AFP
| entry to be edited |
A generic term for derivatives of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone that have coagulation activity. Daily requirement for vitamin K is about 1 µg/kg. In newborns vitamin K nutrition is at risk.
(Greek, vitelline = yolk) | entry to be edited | refers to the yolk sac and is used to describe the blood vessels associated with the yolk sac (vitelline arteries and vitelline veins).
(More? Heart Notes)
(Greek, vitellogenesis = yolk formation) The term refers to the formation of yolk.
(More? Week 2 Notes)
(yolk stalk) Is a narrow endodermal channel between the yolk sac and the developing mid-gut. An abnormality associated with this duct failing to regress is called Meckel's diverticulum.
A gel-like mass located in the vitreous (posterior) chamber of the eye. In development the vitreous also contains the hyloid blood vessels.
(More? Eye Notes)
Acronym for villitis of unknown etiology, a placental pathology.
(More? Placenta Abnormalities)
Search the NIH Medlineplus Medical Dictionary Type the word that you would like to find. If unsure of spelling, type the first few letters, followed by an asterisk(*).
Use this page to access brief definitions of specific alphabetically listed embryology terms. Additional information can be accessed from links listed at the end of each definition. Glossary from the UNSW Embryology program compiled and written by Dr Mark Hill. Reference Material used in preparing Glossary List: Texts listed on page 1 Reading of each notes section, Department of Anatomy Publications, WWW resources from NCBI, AMA (USA), Office of Rare Diseases (USA), PubMed Medline Dictionaries, MSDS, Merck Manual home edn., NHMRC (Australia).
These notes are for Educational Purposes Only.
Please email Dr Mark Hill if you wish to make a comment about this current project.