These notes are intended to give some historic background to Embryology.
Historically, say pre-20th century, Embryology was not easily separated from Medicine, Anatomy and Physiology and other biological sciences. I have also divided, for brevity, into pre-20th century, pre-molecular (lets call it 70's) and the current molecular embryology.
See also a Timeline of Historical Embryology
A series of Anatomies from Early History 1600-1700.
1880 - image excerpts from a historic study of German embryologist Wilhelm His (1831-1904) Anatomie menschlicher Embryonen (1880).
Leydig cells named after german zoologist Franz von Leydig (1821 - 1908). (Franz von Leydig)
1824 - Rolando cut chemically hardened (fixed) pieces of brain tissues into thin sections for microscopical examination
1889 - Camille Golgi discovered a method of silver staining hardened brain tissues
1914 - image excerpts from a historic study of The Anatomy of a 17.8 mm Human Embryo by Thyng, FW 1914,
1918 - links to images from Anatomy of the Human Body by Gray, W 1918
1935 - Hans Spemann's 1935 nobel speech.
Development in the early 20th century can also be seen in some Historic Movies 1920-1960.
Much of the modern history of Medicine/Embryology is documented in the Nobel Prizes for Medicine. There are either text extracts included or links to external texts or references in these notes.
1953 - Virginia Apgar Apgar Test.
1965 - Neural Crest Research Nicole Le Douarin.
1978 - First IVF baby born
2000 - Human Genome Draft
2001 talk given by Robert Winston "Engineering Reproduction: Will We Still Be Human At The End of the 21st Century".
2000 - Human Genome Complete
Also see WWW Links to other History of Medicine Resources, particularly Dr. Ian Carr's brief paper on The History of Childbirth, and Neonatology on the Web has a long list of historic Classic Papers in Neonatal Medicine.
Most Textbooks include Embryology Historic issues in the preface, opening chapter or within each chapter as a special section or highlighted text box. Therefore no specific chapter or page reference is shown for the texts below.
by Henry Smith Williams
Book Sections: Index | Arabian Medicine | Mediaeval | The great anatomists | The coming of Harvey | Leeuwenhoek16th and 17th Medicine | Philosopher-Scientists | 18C Anat/Physiol | 18th C Anat/Phys Part 2 | 18th C Anat/Phys Part 3 | 19th C Anat/ Phys Part 1 | 19th C Anat/ Phys Part 2 | 19th C Anat/ Phys Part 3 | Evolution Part 1 | Evolution Part 2 | Medicine Medicine 18thC | Medicine 19thC Pt1 | Medicine 19thC Pt2 | Brain and Mind | Brain Structure